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Glossary of Terms

Advocate - ad·vo·cate

  • To speak or write in favour of; support or urge by argument; recommend publicly.
  • A person who speaks or writes in support or defense of a person, cause, etc.

Accommodation - ac·com·mo·da·tion

  • as used in psychology this is the process of changing or modifying existing behaviours and routines to new ones.
  • as used in education are changes made in the classroom to assist a child with a disability – learning or physical.

Apprehension - ap·pre·hen·sion

  • a fearful emotion.

Arousal - a·rous·al

  • level of excitement

Behaviour modification - be-hav-ior + mod-i-fi-ca-tion

  • A method of therapy that is concerned with the treatment of behaviours that are unacceptable or undesirable and teaches substitution of appropriate responses.

Binge - binge

  • is any behavior indulged to excess. As used in an eating disorder; binge eating is a pattern of eating which consists of uncontrollable overeating.

Bio-chemical -bio·chem·i·cal

  • This involves chemical reactions or a defect in the brain.

Biofeedback - bio·feed·back

  • is a technique that uses monitoring instruments to measure and feed-back information about muscle tension, heart rate, sweat responses, skin temperature, or brain activity.

Blasphemy - blas·phe·my

  • is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. It may include using the names of these gods when swearing.

 Chronic - chron-ic or chron-ic-al-ly

  • continuing a long time or recurring frequently: a chronic state of civil war. having long had a disease, habit or weakness.

(CBT) – cog·ni·tive + be·ha·viou·r·al + ther·a·py

  • is a term for a therapy system that deals with cognition, interpretation, beliefs and the person’s responses, with the aim of changing undesirable emotions and behaviours.

Complex - com·plex

  • complicated.

Communication - com·mun·i·ca·tion

  • an attempt to express and understand one’s own ideas as well as others.

Comorbid - co·mor·bid

  • This refers to two conditions that are usually found together in the same person.

Compensation - com·pen·sa·tion

  • is a strategy whereby one covers up, consciously or unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, feelings of inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through striving for excellence in another areas.

Compulsions - com·pul·sions

  • is a repetitive, excessive, meaningless activity or mental exercise that a person performs in an attempt to avoid distress or worry.

Concurrent - con·cur·rent

  • Simultaneous; occurring at the same time or together.

Conduct Disorder - con·duct + dis·or·der

  • describes a pattern of repeated behaviours where the rights of others or the current social norms are violated. Symptoms include verbal and physical aggression, cruel behaviour toward people and pets, destructive behaviour, lying, truancy, vandalism, andstealing.

Confrontational - con·fron·ta·tion·al

  • Strongly expressing ideas that are in opposition of another person’s (which may result in conflict).

Congenital - con·gen·i·tal

  • A congenital disorder involves damage to the fetus while it was being developed. As a result certain conditions are then present at birth.

Consequences - con-se-quences

  • The effect or result of something that occurred.

Co-occurrence - co·oc·cur·rence

  • Happening at the same time.
  • two conditions that the same person may have.

Counsellor - coun·sel·lor

  • is a person who is involved in counselling.
  • refers to a person who is concerned with the profession of giving advice on various things such as academic matters, vocational issues and personal relationships. He is a generally a professional and an expert in his field of functioning. There are different types of counsellors such as rehabilitation counsellor, Marriage and Family counsellor, School counsellor, Mental Health counsellor, online counsellor and Legal counsellor.

Curricula - cur×ric×u×la

  •   Course(s) offered by an educational institution

Debilitating - de×bil×i×tat×ing

  • to weaken or to impair the strength of.

Delusion - de×lu×sion

  • A false belief based on an incorrect assumption about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everybody else believes and even with proof to the contrary.

Dependency - de×pen×den×cy

  • as used in Addiction/Substance Abuse, the need for a substance is so strong that it becomes necessary to have this substance to function properly.

Developmental disability - de·vel·op·men·tal + dis·a·bil·i·ty

  • is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physicalimpairments,

Diagnosis - di·ag·no·sis, has two distinct dictionary definitions:

  • 1. The recognition of a disease or condition by its outward signs and symptoms.
  • 2. The analysis of the underlying physiological/biochemical cause(s) of a disease or condition.

Disinhibition - dis·in·hi·bi·tion

  • a term in psychology used to describe conditions of a person being unable (rather than disinclined) to control their immediateimpulsive response to a situation.

Disseminate - dis·sem·i·nate

  • to spread through out

Dopamine - do·pa·mine

  • is a hormone and neurotransmitter in the brain that activates certain actions.

Dysfunction - dys·func·tion

  • relates to abnormal behaviour.

Dyslexia - dys·lex·ia

  • a learning disability that manifests primarily as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling with reversals of characters.

Dysthymia - dys×thy×mia

  • is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. It is considered chronic depression, but with less severity than major depression.

Empathy - em×pa×thy

  • is the ability to recognize or understand someone else’s state of mind or emotion.

Eccentric - ec·cen·tric

  • unusual or odd behaviour on the part of a person

Extraneous stimuli - ex×tra×ne×ous + stim×u×li

  • outside influences

Global - glob·al

  • applying to a whole person or all parts of

Glorification - glor×i×fi×ca×tion

  • The act of raising to a high position or status or the condition of being so raised
  • The honoring of a deity, as in worship

Hallucinations - hal·lu·ci·na·tion

  • are defined as perceptions while you are awake which have the qualities of reality but are not.

Heart palpitations - heart + pal×pi×ta×tions

  • are an abnormal awareness beating of the heart, whether it is too slow, too fast, irregular, or at its normal frequency.

Holistic - ho·lis·tic

  • holistic medicine attempts to treat both the mind and the body.

 Hyperarousal - hy-per-arous-al

  • excessive arousal – see arousal above

Hyper-vigilant - hy×per + vig×i×lant

  • above or beyond the normal watchfulness or alertness.

  Impact - im-pact

  • the influence or effect of

 Impulsive, Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) – im·pul·siv·i·ty

  • is acting on an idea without thinking it through.

Inattentive - in×at×ten×tive

  • not attentive; not paying attention.

Inclusion - in×clu×sion

  • children with disabilities in natural environments with peers who do not have disabilities.
  • a sense of belonging – being part of a community, valued as a contributing member.
  • accepting differences and making accommodations for individual needs and differences.

Inhalants - in·hal·ant

  • are a broad range of drugs in the forms of gases, aerosols, or solvents which are breathed in and absorbed through the lungs.

In-service - in×ser×vice

  • Training conducted on-site and in-house during school/work time either by staff or contracted trainer.

Isolation - iso·la·tion

  • as used in Cutting/Self Harm means no longer seeking to be with friends and family and to prefer being alone.

Lethargy - leth·ar·gy

  • also called exhaustion, is a weariness caused by exertion. It can describe a range of illnesses and can be both physical and mental.

Mandated – man-date

  • a command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by someone.

Manipulative - ma·nip·u·la·tive

  • the ability to handle and/or alter some object or information or to convince someone of something else.

Metabolism  – me·tab·o·lism

  • is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living the body in order to maintain life.

Mis-interpreting - mis×in×ter×pret

  • to understand wrongly

Multiaxial - mul×ti·ax×ial

  • looks at multiple domains/areas of a person’s functioning.

Multidimensional - mul×ti·di×men×sion×al

  • The understanding of a person through examination of their various domains/areas of functioning.

Multidisciplinary - mul×ti·dis×cip×lin×ary

  • is a non-integrative mixture of disciplines in that each discipline retains its methodologies and assumptions without change or development from other disciplines within the multidisciplinary relationship.

Manipulation - ma·nip·u·la·tion

  • a means of gaining control or social influence over others by methods which might be considered unfair.

Myth - myth

  • any invented story, idea or concept

  Neurobehavioral - neu·ro·be·hav·ior·al

  • of or relating to the relationship between the action of the nervous system and behaviors such as learning disabilities.

Neurobiology - neu·ro·bi·ol·o·gy

  • the branch of biology that is concerned with the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.

Neurology - neu·rol·o·gy

  • is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.

Neuorological disorder - neu×rol×o×gic×al + dis×or×der

  • Disturbance in structure or function of the nervous system resulting from developmental abnormality, disease, injury, or toxin

Obsession - ob×ses×sion

  • A persistent pre-occupation with an idea of feeling

Occupational therapy - oc×cup×a×tion×al + ther×a×py

  • Skilled treatment that helps people return to ordinary tasks around home and at work by maximizing physical potential through lifestyle.

Oppositional - op·po·si·tion·al

  • is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior.

Palpitation - pal·pi·ta·tion

  • is an abnormal awareness of the beating of the heart, whether it is too slow, too fast, irregular, or at its normal frequency.

Palpebral fissures - pal·pe·bral + fis·sures

  • separation between the upper and lower eyelids

Perceived - per-ceiv-ed

  • See perception below – to regard as being such; to attain an understanding of

Perception - per·cep·tion

  • is the process of attaining an awareness or understanding of sensory information

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) – per×va×sive + de×vel×op×men×tal + dis×or×der

  • as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.

Pervasive impairment - per×va×sive + im×pair ment

  • (everywhere), intractable (not easily relieved or cured) loss of normal function of part of the body due to disease or injury

Philtrum -  phil·trum

  • is the vertical groove in the upper lip.

Phonological - pho·no·log·i·cal

  • is the science of speech sounds including the phonetics and phonemics of a language at a particular time
  • the ability to use sound to determine the meaning of spoken language.

Physiological - phys·i·o·log·i·cal

  • characteristic of, or appropriate to, our healthy or normal functioning , based in the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of the person.

Predisposed - pre-dis-pose

  • To have a tendency to – i.e. genetic factors make one more likely to

Preferential – pref-er-en-tial

  • showing or giving preference

Preoccupation - pre·oc·cu·pa·tion

  • worrying about or thinking about something more than what is considered normal.

Prognosis - prog·no·sis

  • is a medical term for the doctor’s prediction of how a patient’s disease will progress, and whether there is a chance of recovery. This word is often used in medical reports to call attention to the doctor’s view on a case.

Proprioception - pro·pri·o·cep·tion

  • is the reaction to bodily sensations.

Psychiatrist - psy·chi·a·trist

  • is a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders.

Psycho-educational - psy·cho·edu·ca·tion·al

  • assessment and intervention target a student’s function within his or her educational setting.

Psychological assessment - psy·chol·o·gic·al + as·sess·ment

  • is a process that involves the integration of information from multiple sources, such as psychological tests, and other information such as personal and medical history, description of current symptoms and problems by either self or others, and collateral information (interviews with other persons about the person being assessed).

Psychologist - psy·chol·o·gist

  • is a practitioner of psychology, the scientific investigation of the mind, including behaviour, cognition, and affect.

Psychotherapy - psy·cho·ther·a py

  • treatment of mental or emotional disorder or of related bodily ills by psychological means.

Psychometry - psy·chom·e·try

  • measuring psychological attributes through a variety of tools and techniques which includes standardized testing.

Psychosis - psy·cho·sis

  • People experiencing psychosis may report hallucinations or delusional beliefs, and may exhibit personality changes anddisorganized thinking. This may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior, as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out the activities of daily living.

Psycho-social - psy·cho·so·cial

  • refers to ones psychological development in and interaction with a social environment. The individual is not necessarily fully aware of this relationship with his or her environment.

Recreation therapy - re·cre·a·tion + ther·a·py

  • the broad spectrum of health care through treatment, education, and the provision of adapted recreational opportunities – all of which aid in improving and maintaining physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning.

Recurrent - re·cur·rent

  • the same issue returning after a period of absence.

Remorse - re·morse

  • is an emotional expression of personal regret felt by a person after he or she has committed an act which they deem to be shameful, hurtful, or violent.

Repetitive - re·pet·i·tive

  • repeating something over and over again.

Sensory - sen·sory

  • of or relating to the senses or sensation. Transmitting impulses from sense organs to nerve centers.

Serotonin - se·ro·to·nin

  • is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Spectrum - spec·trum

  • means that it is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a disability.

Socio-economic - so·cio·eco·nom·ic

  • one’s standing in society based on a variety of factors including income, education, etc.

Social skills - so·cial + skills

  • are a group of skills which people need to interact and communicate with others in a positive way. This is done using verbal and nonverbal ways.

Spatial - spa·tial

  • relating to the ability to perceive relations of objects in space

Specific - spe·cif·ic

  • particular.

Stigma - stig·ma

  • the feeling of shame or disgrace because of a disease/diagnosis/appearing different from others around you.

Stimulants - stim·u·lants

  • are substances that are eaten or swallowed (coffee, medication) that temporarily increase alertness and awareness. They usually have increased side-effects with increased effectiveness and can be misused.

Substitute Decision Maker - sub·sti·tu·tion + de·ci·sion + ma·ker

  • anyone who makes care decisions for another person when that person is unable.

Transistions – tran-si-tion

  • movement, passage, or change from one position, state, stage, subject, concept, etc., to another; ex. the transition from adolescence to adulthood

Transposes - trans·po·ses

  • to change the position of

 Trauma informed - trau-ma + in-form-ed

  • When a human service agency takes the step to become trauma-informed, every part of its organization, management, and service delivery system is trained to include a basic understanding of how trauma affects the life of a person. Trauma-informed organizations are based on an understanding of the vulnerabilities or triggers of trauma survivors that traditional service delivery approaches may worsen, so that these services and programs can be more supportive.

Traumatic - trau·mat·ic

  • as used in Conduct Disorder means an emotional or psychological injury, usually resulting from an extremely stressful or life-threatening situation.

Triage – tri-age

  • the process of determining medical priorities

Truant - tru·ant

  • is an intentional unauthorized absence from compulsory schooling. The term typically describes absences caused by students of their own free will.

Vestibular - ves·tib·u·lar

  • affecting how the body perceives position and movement.

Vulnerability - vul-ner-a-bil-ity

  • Capable of being wounded (physically or emotionally)